Sponge Iron

We are the leading manufacturer of Direct-reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, which is produced from direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets or fines) by a reducing gas produced from natural gas or coal.

What is Sponge Iron?

Sponge iron is also known as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI). Direct reduction, is an alternative route of iron making has been developed to overcome some of these difficulties of conventional blast furnaces. DRI is successfully manufactured through either gas or coal-based technology. Iron ore is reduced in solid state at 800-1050 c either by reducing gas (H2+CO) or coal. The direct reduction process uses palletized iron or natural ‘lump’ ore.


Sponge iron making is a process in which iron ore lumps (typically 5mm-18mm size) are tumbled with a ‘select’ grade of iron-coking coal little dolomite inside an inclined rotary kiln and control combusted in the presence of air for about 12 hours before the products are air cooled, magnetically separated, screened and size wise in finished product bunkers prior to dispatch.

The process entails a direct reduction of the iron ore (i.e. removal of oxygen from the ore) in solid state to metalize the ore at a ‘critical’ temperature to make this possible.

The basic reduction reactions in a coal based DRI process is as follows

C+ O2 = CO2
CO2 +C = 2CO
3Fe2O3 + CO = 2Fe3O4 + CO2
Fe3O4 + CO = 3FeO + CO2
FeO + CO = Fe + CO2

We are manufacturing high-grade sponge iron that is consistent in its quality. The production process followed at Lloyd Metals and Energy Limited makes it unique and superior than its competitors.

The Technical Specifications of Sponge Iron:

Constituent Percentage
A.  Physical
Size Lump +3 mm
Fines 0-3 mm
B.  Chemical
Fe, Metallic 82% AVG.
Metallization 92% AVG.
Sulphur 0.05%
Phosphorus 0.035% to 0.050%
Carbon 0.15% to 0.25% (0.2% avg.)
Gangue content 5.0 % avg